Thursday, May 8, 2008

Glossary, Arabic Transliteration to English: K, L, and M

Islamic (Qur’anic) and Arabic GLOSSARY

Ka’bah* - An empty cube-shaped structure located in the city of Makkah (Saudi Arabid). Built by Prophet Abraham and his son Isha’il. Muslims believe this is the first building dedicated to the worship of the One God. It is made of stone and is covered by a black and gold cloth embroidered with verses from the Qur’an.

Khadijah -The first wife of Muhammad and during her lifetime, the only wife. Khadijah was a successful businesswoman in Makkah who employed Muhammad as a merchant/trader. Married for 25 years until her death at the age of 65 in 610 C.E. They had two sons, both died in infancy, and four daughters together.

Kafir - Unbeliever, infidel. The term implies one who knowingly hides the truth.
Kafirun- Unbelievers

Kalam - Islamic doctrinal theology.

Karim - Generous Hero

Abd al-Karim - Servant of the Generous

Khalifah(Caliph) - “successor” to Muhammad, the vice regent or political leaders of a Muslim State.

Khutbah* - Community address of Friday Jum’ah. Given immediately prior to the Jum’ah midday worship service. The address serves as a venue for leaders to share with members of the congregation religious insights, to discuss Islamic viewpoints on important contemporary issues, and to reinforce teachings of Islam. Given by an imam.

Kufr - “blasphemy” The state of being a Kafir.

Laylat al-Qadr* - Night of Power”. This term is used in reference to the night in Ramadan, 610 C.E. on which Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur’an, during his time in the cave.

Lunar Calendar* - The hijrah of Muhammad from Makkah to Madinah in 622 C.E. marks the starting point of the Muslim calendar, comprised of 12 lunar months (a lunar year is roughly eleven days shorter than a solar year since each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 20 or 30 days).

Madhhab* - Arabic term used in reference to a particular “school of thought” in Islam. As Islam spread to new regions outside the Arabian peninsula and new social, economic and religious issues arose, many scholars studied the sources of Islam to find permissible and practical solutions that believers could employ to address these issues. Over time, the teachings and thoughts of five respected scholars gained prominence, and Muslims tend to adhere to the “school of thought” of one or another of these scholars. Each school’s opinions, while differing to some degree with the others, are considered equally valid as a source of practical guidance for the “lay” Muslim. The Encyclopaedia of Islam translates Mahdab as a "way of thinking, persuasion". It is "a method", a method of interpretation of religious material in the three major areas: belief, religious practice and law. Most Muslims would know about the four sunni madhabs: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali. Their geographical distribution is as follows: Hanafi Both Moghul and Ottoman empires were Hanafi, that means their former subjects would normally be Hanafi: Turkey, Central Asia, the Balkans, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh. Maliki school is followed in Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Mauritania, Libya, Kuwait, Bahrain, Dubai and Abu Dhabi.

Madrasa - A traditional school for the study of Islam.

Madinah (Medina) - Formerly named Yathrib, Madinah became the center of the first Islamic community and political state after Prophet Muhammad migrated there from Makkah in 622 C.E. Muhammad died in Madinah in 632 C.E. and was buried in his room adjacent to the city’s central masjid, which he established.

Makkah (Mecca) - An ancient city where Abraham and Isma’il built the Ka’bah. Muhammad, a member of the Quraysh tribe, which traced it’s lineage back to Abraham, was born to Makkah in 570C.E. After migrating to Madinah to further the message of Islam.

Mala’ikah - Angels

Manarah - A tower-like structure, more commonly called a “minaret” , from which the Mueddhim (caller to worship) calls out the adhan (call to prayer), five times a day. The manarah is usually located adjacent to the masjid (mosque) though for architectural reasons they may be placed at various places on the masjid grounds for practical as well as decorative effect.

Maryam - Mother of Jesus

Masjid* (mosque) - A term meaning “place of prostration”

Mir’aj - Ascension (to heaven of Muhammad)

Mueddhin - Callers to prayer, one who makes the adhan. Also reciters of the Qur’an while worshippers assemble at the masjid and perform the wudu (ritual washing) a few minutes prior to commencement of congregational worship

Mufti - A legal functionary who gives opinions on Islamic law. The grand mufti is the highest religious authority. The word mufti is derived from the same root as fatwa.

Muhammad* - The prophet and righteous person believed by Muslims to be the final messenger of Allah, whose prececessors are believed to include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and others. Born in 570 C.E., Muhammad grew up to become a well-respected member of Makkan society. In 610 C.E. he received the first of many revelations that would eventually form the content of the Qur’an. Soon after this initial event, he was conferred prophethood and began calling people to righteouness and belief in One God. Muhammad died in 632, C.E. after successfully reestablishing the religion known as Islam and providing Muslims with a model for ideal human behavior.

Mujahedeen - Plural – Persons who wages jihad – combatant’s behalf of a jihad.
Mujahed - Singular- Person who wages jihad

Mujtabid - A person who exercises ijtijad (Independent judgment on religious matters or principles of Islamic jurisprudence that is not specifically outlined in the Qur’an).

Mullah - Master” The title mullah is used by religious leaders in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.

Al-mukaddhibun- Deniers

muminun - Fact believers

munafiqum - Hypocrites

Murtadd - “Apostate” A murtadd is one who converts from Islam to another religion. According to a 2002 report on Saudi Arabia issued by the U.S. State Dept., under Islamic law “apostasy is a crime punishable by death if the accused does not recant.”

Musa* - Moses of the Hebrew bible.

- Polytheists: sometimes translated as idolaters

Muslim* - A person who submits to God by following Islam. The word “muhammadan” is a perjorative and offensive misnomer, as it violates Muslim’s most basic understanding of their creed – Muslims do not worship Muhammad, nor do they view him as the founder of the religion. The word “Moslem” is also incorrect, since it is a corruption of the world “Muslim”.

Approaching the Qur’an, the Early Revelations, Introduced and Translated by Michael Sells, White Cloud Press, Ashland, Oregon

Islam, Opposing Viewpoints, Jennifer A. Hurley, Book Editor, Greenhaven Press, Inc., San Diego, CA

Hatred’s Kingdom, How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism, Dore Gold, Regnery Publishing, Inc.

The Koran, A Very Short Introduction

*Teaching About Islam & Muslims in the Public School Classroom, A Handbook for Educators, 3rd edition, CAIR ISBN 1-93109-00-8
It is clearly seen that all derogatory terminology to non-Muslims is absent from the CAIR publication. Another example of taqiyya and kitman.

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