Monday, May 5, 2008

Glossary - Arabic Transliteration to English: H, I, and J

Glossary - Arabic Translieration to English: H, I, and J

Hadith* - Tradition or sayings attributed to the prophet Muhammad in the writings of his contemporaries and referred to for authoritative precedent in interpreting the Qur’an. The Hadith forms part of the record of the Sunnah (way of life and example). The Hadith record the words and deeds, explanations, and interpretations of the Prophet concerning all aspects of life. Hadith are found in various collectons compliked by Muslim scholars in the early centureies of the Muslim civilization, Six such collections are considered most authentic.

Hafiz* - One who has memorized the entirely of the Qur’an.

Hajar* - One of Abraham’s wives who, along with her infant son Isma’il, was settled in Arabia by Abraham. She may be considered the founder of the city of Makkah, since it was a desolate valley prior to her arrival and discovery of the sacred well known as ZamZam.

Hajj-The pilgrimage (journey) to Makkah that is one of the PILLARS of Islam. Commemorates the Abrahamic roots of Islam. The hajj rites symbolically reenact the trials and sacrifices of Prophet Abraham, his wife Hajar, and their son Isma’il over 4,000 years ago.

Halal* - Arabic term designating that which is deemed lawful in Islam, based on the two authoritative sources, the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet.

Hamas- Islamic Resistance Movement. Founded 1987 in the Gaza Strip by former leaders of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan); Hamas is designated by the U.S. State Dept. as an international terrorist organization.

Haram* - Arabic term designating that which is deemed unlawful or forbidden in Islam, based on the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Hawwa - Eve, the wife of Adam.

Hijrah/Hegira* - The migration in 622 C.E. of the Prophet and members of the Muslim community fro the city of Makkah to the city of Yathrib, later renamed Madinah an-Nabi (city of the prophet) in honor of Muhammad. The Islamic lunar calendar (the hijri, is dated from this event), which has been implemented in Shari’ah.

Hijab - A veil that fully covers the hair, or more broadly, the modest dress that is required of Muslim women by the Shar’iah.

Hira* - The cave on the outskirts of Makkah where the prophet at the age of forty, received the first revelations of the Qur’an, beginning with the word “iqra” which means “read”. The cave was a favorite place of retreat for Muhammad prior to his call to prophethood.

Hizballah - “Party of God”. Formed in late 1982 is a pro-Iranian Lebanese Shiite militia with offshoots in the Arabian Peninsula, it is designated by the U.S. State Dept. as an international terrorist organization.

Huddud - “Limits”, the limits of acceptable behavior, the specific punishments designed under Shar’iah for specific crimes, such as intoxication, theft, adultery, and apostasy (disavowing the faith).

Ibadah* - “worship” All acts demonstrate obedience and commitment o God.

Iblis*- The personal name of Satan, or the devil. A prominent member of the jinn. An avowed enemy of humankind.

-(singular) son of
abna - (plural) sons of

Ibrahim- Abrabam, a prophet and righteous person revered by Muslims, Jews, and Christians, as the patriarch of monotheism. Abraham’s devotion, struggles, and sacrifices during the annual hajj rites are commemorated.

Ihram* - State of Cconsecration into which Muslims enter in order to perform the hajj or umrah (lesser pilgrimage). The term also refers to the specific dress, made of white, unstitched, seamless cloth, donned by pilgrims while in this state. During the hajj, the ihram worn by pilgrims serves to reinforce a sense of humility and purity, and human equality in the eyes of God.

Ijma*- Consensus of opinion among the community of the ulama.

Ijtibad* - Independent judgment on religious matters or principles of Islamic jurisprudence
that is not specifically outlined in the Qur’an.

- Arabic term meaning “knowledge”. The Qur’an and Hadith encourage Muslims to constantly strive to increase their knowledge of both religious and worldly matters.

Imam*- Religious or political leader particularly among SHIA. They are not ordained clergy, nor do they belong to any kind of hierarchy. Also, Imams do not act as intermediaries between individual worshippers and God. The term as specific authoritative connotations for Shi’ah Muslims.

Iman - Arabic term meaning “Faith” and the articles of faith as well as actual demonstration of belief in practice and behavior.

Injeel* - Arabic name for the holy scripture revealed to Prohphet Jesus. The Injeel is roughly analogous to the Evangelium of Christian it and refers to a divine book provided to Jesus by God, as distant from the Christian Gospels, which are viewed as records of Jesus’ life written by his closest contemporaries.

Insan - Humankind, Human Being Person, Someone, gender non specific, mankind.

Intifada - “shaking off”. The intifada was a Palestinian uprising in December 1987; a second intifada erupted in September 2000.

Iqra* - Arabic “to read” or “recite”, it wa sw the first word of the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad during one of his cave retreats.

Isa* - Jesus

Isma’il* - the elder son of Abraham, born to wife, Hajar. When he was 13 years old help Abraham build the Ka’bah.

Islam - Arabic term “Submission to God” and to God’s message revealed to Muhammad.

Isra - Night Journey (of Muhammad)

- Qur’anic term in reference to Hell, described as a place of torment, sorrow, and remorse. Allah does not want to send anyone to hell, yet justice demands that righteous people be rewarded and those who insist on evil without repentance and denial of Allah be punished.

Jahilia - The age of ignorance or darkness inpre-Islamic Arabia, before the Prophet Muhammad spread Islam in the seventh century. Some may use this term to describe aspects of modern living as well.

Janazah* - Muslim funeral prayer, performed as a sign of respect and goodwill for a deceased Muslim.

Jannah* - Qur’anic term in reference to Heaven. A reward of the righteous Muslim. Often described as a blissful garden.

Jibrell* - The angel Gabriel, the most important angel who was responsible for transmitting Allah’s divine revelations to all of the human prophets ending with Muhammad. Gabriel is referred to in the Qur’an as a ruh (Spirit) from Allah.

Jihad* - Arabic term, which derives from the three-letter root j-h-d, and means “to exert oneself” or “to “strive”. Other meanings include endeavor, strain, effort, diligence, struggle. Usually understood in terms of personal betterment, jihad may also mean fighting to defend one’s (or another Muslim’s) life, property and faith. Jihad is a highly nuanced concept, it should not be understood to mean “holy war”, a common misrepresentation. (There are two types of Jihad: Greater and Lesser. Lesser Jihad IS “Holy War” or to fulfill religious responsibilities to a holy war. As stated in this description, Jihad of this type is known as Greater Jihad, while “Holy War” is known to Muslims as Lesser Jihad – this is a perfect example of “Holy Lying to Kafirun (unbelievers), known as Taqiyya or Kitman (lying by omission. )

Jinni - Genies (semi-spirit beings), singular
Jinn Genies, plural

Jum’ah* - The congregational worship performed on Fridays in place of midday worship.

Approaching the Qur’an, the Early Revelations, Introduced and Translated by Michael Sells, White Cloud Press, Ashland, Oregon

Islam, Opposing Viewpoints, Jennifer A. Hurley, Book Editor, Greenhaven Press, Inc., San Diego, CA

Hatred’s Kingdom, How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism, Dore Gold, Regnery Publishing, Inc

*Teaching About Islam & Muslims in the Public School Classroom, A Handbook for Educators, 3rd edition, CAIR ISBN 1-93109-00-8
It is clearly seen that all derogatory terminology to non-Muslims is absent from the CAIR publication. Another example of taqiyya and kitman.

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